Water filter

 

A water filter removes impurities by lowering contamination of water using a fine physical barrier, a chemical process, or a biological process. Filters cleanse water to different extents for purposes such as providing agricultural irrigation, accessible drinking water, public and private aquariums, and the safe use of ponds and swimming pools.
Point-of-use filters for home use include granular-activated carbon filters (GAC) used for carbon filtering, depth filter, metallic alloy filters, microporous ceramic filters, carbon block resin (CBR), microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes. Some filters use more than one filtration method. An example of this is a multi-barrier system. Jug filters can be used for small quantities of drinking water. Some kettles have built-in filters, primarily to reduce limescale buildup.
Standard Flowmatic cartridge style filters are added to existing plumbing; the filter cartridges are cylinders 10 inches (254 mm) long by 2.5 inches (64 mm) in diameter. They are made by multiple manufactures and are available in 0.5-100 micron ratings as well as activated carbon.
Some common substances that filtration does not remove are arsenic, bacteria, chlorides, fluoride, nitrates, perchlorates, pharmaceuticals, sodium and viruses.
Water filters are used by hikers, aid organizations during humanitarian emergencies, and the military. These filters are usually small, portable and lightweight (1-2 pounds/0.5-1.0 kg or less), and usually filter water by working a mechanical hand pump, although some use a siphon drip system to force water through while others are built into water bottles. Dirty water is pumped via a screen-filtered flexible silicon tube through a specialized filter, ending up in a container. These filters work to remove bacteria, protozoa and microbial cysts that can cause disease. Filters may have fine meshes that must be replaced or cleaned, and ceramic water filters must have their outside abraded when they have become clogged with impurities.
These water filters should not be confused with devices or tablets that disinfect water which remove or kill viruses such as hepatitis A and rotavirus.
NSF International as it is now known started out as the National Sanitation Foundation in 1944 at the University of Michigan School of Public Health. The NSF's water treatment Device Certification Program requires extensive product testing and unannounced audits of production facilities. One goal of this not for profit organization is to provide assurance to consumers that the water treatment devices they are purchasing meet the design, material, and performance requirements of national standards.

 

 

 
 


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